3000 BCE timeline

4500 BCE - 3000 BCE: The Hongshan culture in China produces a jade figurine which is the oldest known depiction of a dragon. 4500 BCE - 3750 BCE: The Neolithic village of Banpo is inhabited. 4000 BCE: Farming settlements are established in the Indus Valley. Adding CE or BCE after a year is only necessary if there is room for misunderstanding, e.g. in texts where years both before and after year 1 are mentioned. For instance, Pompeii, Italy (see image) was founded around 600–700 BCE and was destroyed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 CE. During the Bronze Age (about 3,000 B.C. to 1,300 B.C.), metalworking advances were made, as bronze, a copper and tin alloy, was discovered. Now used for weapons and tools, the harder metal ... Historical events during 3000 BC - 1500 AD Timeline. Print; Events. Bronze Age Approx. 3000 BC - Approx. 1200 BC. The Bronze Age is the name of the time period in which stone tools started being replaced with tools made of bronze, a mixture of tin and copper. The discovery of bronze (while most likely happening by accident) was essentially what ... The timeline around 3000 BCE is important in world history as event of global flooding and major catastrophe. To start, excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at ... 3000 BCE - 2900 BCE: Mari, the earliest known planned city, is built near the eastern bank of the Euphrates. 2900 BCE: Probable date of the regional Great Flood when the river Euphrates rose. 2900 BCE - 2334 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer. First Farmers, 10,000 BCE - 3000 BCE Farming: Stone Age Farmers of the Savanna. Farming in much of Sub-Saharan Africa is based on management of animal herds, together with cultivation of a range of indigenous savanna crops. These savanna crops include a wide range of small-seeded grasses (various millet species), sorghum, African rice, as well ...

For fun, I compiled a Timeline of Archaeological, Genetic, and Geologic data. I think this is the audience that would appreciate it. (My observations in the comment section.)

2020.09.23 02:33 SkyAnimal For fun, I compiled a Timeline of Archaeological, Genetic, and Geologic data. I think this is the audience that would appreciate it. (My observations in the comment section.)

A timeline of Human Development, using archaeological, genetic, and geologic data:
Earth's orbit experiences a Orbital Eccentricity, 100,000 year cycle orbit and inclination variation, going from circular to elliptical, the hemispheres experience more or less sun or exposure to the sun for extended periods, causing ice ages. Scientists estimate we are near the minimum, a 6% change in solar energy. At peak, the earth experiences a change of 30%.
44 million y a - Hominid ancestors acquire Herpes virus.
10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.
6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)
5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.
5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.
4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).
3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.
3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.
3-1.4 m y a - Chimpanzee Herpes oral virus mutates into Hominid genital virus, cross species transmission (Homo Habilis or Paranthropus Boisei).
2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago
2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.
2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.
1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).
1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.
1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.
1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.
1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.
1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)
1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.
1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.
820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).
800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?
790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)
740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)
530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).
500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears. (Would become common 300,000 years ago.)
450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.
450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.
430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).
400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).
400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.
360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).
300,000 y a - Kenya, oldest evidence of Ochre rocks being used for pigment.
300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)
270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).
200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time. Scientists think that language with well formed, meaningful sentences was achieved (migration patterns, anatomy, tool making; some argue that truly modern language is 50,000 years old).
194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.
190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)
190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.
170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)
140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.
130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.
125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.
110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.
100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.
100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, Blombos Cave, pigment (paint) creation kit found; possible oldest evidence of abstract art.
75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.
75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.
73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.
72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.
70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. Earliest evidence of Glue (sticky tree gum, ochre rocks, fat cooked over fire).
70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?
70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.
67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.
65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.
64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).
61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.
60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.
55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.
52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.
52-41,000 y a - France, Neanderthal site, bast (tree inner fiber) yarn found (evidence of basic math and organizational skills for patterns and sets, clothing, nets, tools)
50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).
50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.
50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).
45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)
44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.
44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.
43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.
42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.
40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.
40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.
38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.
40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.
35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.
35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.
31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.
30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)
30-15,000 y a - DNA evidence of Denisovan interbreeding with Homo Sapiens.
30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.
28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.
25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.
27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.
26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)
23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).
23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.
21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.
20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.
19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.
17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.
18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.
18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.
15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.
15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.
14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.
14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.
14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.
14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.
13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.
15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.
12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)
11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.
13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.
13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.
12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum. Started when a massive fresh water lake in North America flooded into the Atlantic Ocean.
10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.
11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.
9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.
11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.
11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).
9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.
9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.
9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.
9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.
11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.
11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)
11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.
8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.
8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.
8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).
10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.
10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).
10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.
8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.
78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.
9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.
7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).
7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.
7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.
7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.
7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)
6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)
6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.
8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?
6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.
8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.
6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.
7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.
7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.
7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.
6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.
6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.
5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).
5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).
5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.
5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.
5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.
4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).
4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.
4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.
4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.
4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.
4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper; earliest pipes for moving water. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.
4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).
6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)
3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.
5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.
3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.
5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)
3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting; used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).
3500 - 3350 BCE - Mesopotamia, earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.
3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.
5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.
3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.
3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.
3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.
3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.
3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.
2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered. Sumer, Battle Wagons (4 wheels, likely evolved into a Battle Cart, and later into Chariot).
2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.
2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.
2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.
2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.
2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.
2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).
2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.
2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.
2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).
2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.
2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.
2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)
4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.
2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown. Pakistan, Harappa, earliest sanitation in housing.
1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.
1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).
1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.
1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.
1650 BCE - Greece, earliest chariots found.
1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.
1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.
1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs; archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.
1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.
1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”
1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.
1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)
1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).
1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.
1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.
1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."
1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.
1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.
1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.
1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?
1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.
1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.
1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.
930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.
800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.
800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.
700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.
700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.
600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.
600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy
550 BCE - The Illiad written down.
500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.
400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.
396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.
314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.
298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.
200 BCE - China starts making paper.
100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.
400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.
800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.
1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.
1250 - 1850 CE - Earth experiences a small Ice Age.
1500 CE - Concept of Religion becomes clearly defined.
1650 CE - Pendulum Clock.
1750 CE - France, Strawberry grown in garden. Barbados, Grapefruit.
1760 CE - Bat guano begins showing increased levels of lead, indicating the Industrial Revolution.
1880 CE (140 years ago), Carnegie steel erects skyscrapers.
submitted by SkyAnimal to JoeRoganpodcast [link] [comments]


2020.05.15 02:50 pittfan46 May 14 Update: A Bunch of Things

Hello Community,
Just an update from the last post.
We have been able to come to an agreement on several key decisions as a modteam. I know you are all eager to start, but there is still work to be done.
I don't want to make any promises I cannot keep, so the start of the season is still TBD.
Please see below:
Timeline for HWP
Week 1: 4000-3000 BCE
Week 2: 3000-2500 BCE
Week 3: 2500-2000 BCE
Week 4: 2000-1500 BCE
Week 5: 1500-1250 BCE
Week 6: 1250-1000 BCE
Week 7: 1000-900 BCE
Week 8: 900-800 BCE
Week 9: 800-775 BCE
Each week will be 25 years per week until 1000 CE.
This is subject to change.
Claiming, Expanding, and Migrating

Claiming

To begin a civilisation, you must claim an area you want. However, to add more diversity to nations and realism, there are three different claiming options.
  • Sedentary Claims
  • City State Claims
  • Nomadic Claims
Transitioning to the other type is allowed after a decent amount of RP has been given over a period of time, and moderator approval.
Making a Claim
After you have chosen the path you want to follow when claiming, you must:
  • Use some form of art software (ex: MS Paint), to fill in 4 adjacent territories using our empty blank map (Except City-States, which start with one).
  • After your claim image is made, and uploaded to a picture sharing site (Imgur recommended), you can then post your claim to the subreddit
  • Flair it yourself with the green CLAIM flair, [NOTE: We do not have auto-flair so putting [CLAIM] in the title will not work].
Your post must contain the type of civilization you are starting as, a little history, and your map. City maps, road maps, and flags are optional. A moderator will review and approve your claim as long as it does not interfere with current expansions or other claims, and your wiki handed to you by a moderator.

Expanding

Once you have your civilization established, you may expand into tiles every week using the "EXPANSION" tag.
Expansions will have no maximum tile / province cap.
So it's not a matter of getting behind or missing out on expansion, but rewarding mature players that understand you can't just blob and sustain. if you take a really big expansion, you are expected to collapse / shed a lot of that, and if that doesn't happen, it is up to the moderators to intervene. Single expansions of over 8 tiles will require a consensus of moderators, excluding those who are in the same region.
City State claims may only expand a maximum of half their claim size, starting at one tile the first week they are claimed. City State’s maximum size is 13 total tiles.

Migrating

Nomads: Nomads may migrate as many tiles as they can, without penalty, so long as it is feasible. Migrations over harsh climates (mountains, deserts, though other claims, etc), and long distances will be subject to moderator review and appropriate penalties will be based on how difficult the migration is, and the associated RP that is posted along with the migration
Sedentary Claims: Sedentary claims must migrate out of two tiles for every one tile they wish to migrate in to. Sedentary Claims must have a good reason to migrate, and will be reviewed more harshly by moderators.
City States: City-States cannot migrate without a calamity that forces them to.
To do this, you must create a post with this tag containing a suitable amount of RP detailing why or how you have taken your chosen provinces.
These posts must be put onto the subreddit, and linked in the general Expansion Post in the side bar, by 11.59pm GMT on the Friday of each week (that's 6.59pm Eastern Time, 3.59pm Pacific Time, or 0.59am on the Saturday in Central European Time).
Expansions and migrations into certain territories may need justifiable RP, or when a claim is too large, expansions may need justifying or be restricted.
Technology
Your claim has potential access to all the technology of real world civilizations in the same technology era within 100 years of the in-game date.
For example, if your civilization is in the Bronze Age and the in-game date is 1000 BCE, you have potential access to technology of real world Bronze Age civilizations around 1000 BCE, but not the technology of real world Iron Age civilizations around 1000 BCE, or the technology of Bronze Age civilizations around 600 BCE. You also have access to technology of previous eras, again up to roughly 100 years around the in-game date. Key inventions are the exception to this rule - your claim only has access to those if your claim has developed or integrated them, regardless of the year or real world civilizations.
Tech Eras
Eras are used to make sure a certain package of advancing technology (think engineering/mathematics/naval development) goes hand in hand and that you don't get debates about whether or not they need a specific landmark technology as a prerequisite.
To roleplay using a certain technology, all you have to do is show a real world example in the same "era" (we'll provide examples with each era) using said technology within 100 years of the in game date.
Technology eras allow for a clear line of advancement between them.
For example, the Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age. When the game reaches the years corresponding to a certain technology era, players can write about how their civilization made the progress necessary for advancement.
Such an advancement has to be approved by the moderators, but if your neighbors are ahead of you, catching up is much easier since your claim does not have to rely on making independent inventions.
Key inventions are specific technologies which had significant impact on their own and did not necessarily go hand in hand with technology eras. Literacy and gunpowder are two examples of this. Plenty of Bronze Age civilizations were literate, but there were many illiterate Iron Age civilizations as well.
The unique invention of each key technology works the same as for technology eras - at the appropriate year, write about it and ask for moderator approval. Key inventions spread far more easily than entire technology eras, so if your neighboring claims have gained access to a key invention it is generally just a formality to acquire it as well.
Here is an overview with eras for Afro-Eurasia from 4000 BCE to 0 CE

Technology Eras

Era Available Notes and Examples
Late Neolithic From Start
Chalcolithic From Start
Bronze Age From Start
Iron Age From 1500 BCE Late Neolithic direct transition to Iron Age possible from 900 BCE
Classical Era From 500 BCE Bronze Age direct transition to Classical Era possible from 300 BCE
Pre-Modern Era From 500 CE
The Americas are TBD.
If you have any questions, comments, or concerns, put them below, or join us on our Discord.
Best,
HWP Modteam
submitted by pittfan46 to HistoricalWorldPowers [link] [comments]


2020.04.20 02:21 ArchaixArchives Mystery of the Megafauna: How Science Invented an Entire Epoch

The megafauna pose a serious problem to establishment historians. These enormous mammals were assigned to an Ice Age period but it is now confidently concluded by meticulous analysis of preserved frozen mammoths, saber-tooth cats, wooly rhinosaurus and other megafauna that these animals were NOT living in a frozen world but in a temperate-to-tropical environment when they were quick-frozen. The entire Ice Age epoch is an invention to mask a much more devastating anomaly.
That the Earth in times past was a glaciosphere of frozen wastes can not be disputed, even petrified jellyfish and earthworms have been discovered in multiple sites (only possible if flash-frozen anterior to petrification), but the vast durations of Ice Ages are a complete fiction. Our Ice Age model is of vast periods of time involving freezing temperatures and this is untrue. Whole continents were quick-frozen in MINUTES, even the air and several feet underground. Each event an anomaly and required about a decade for the world to warm back up.
Further upsetting the cherished model are the number fossil and human artifact findings demonstrating that prehistoric creatures, marsupials, megafauna and humans were all living on earth at the same time. Acambaro, Mexico has yielded over 33,500 objects of ceramic, stone, including jade, and knives of obsidian (sharper than steel and still used today in heart surgery). (1) Bizarre statuettes are among them, some of an erotic nature. Representations of Negroes, Orientals and bearded Caucasians, even bigfoot-type figures. Radio-carbon analysis estimates they date about 4000 BCE. (2) Discovered by Waldemar Julsrub in 1944 CE the artifacts were unearthed with the teeth of an extinct Ice Age horse and the skeleton of a mammoth. Megafauna remains among sophisticated human artwork.
In Chronicon published on archiax.com we find that it was in 3895 BCE that the displacement of the lithosphere was accompanied by the eruption of numerous volcanoes on land and undersea. As hundreds of magma domes blew open volcanic ash thickened an already water-enriched atmosphere. Intense volcanism saturated the vapor canopy with ambient radiation (see 1902 CE for modern example) that produced giantism among the fauna and flora. This newly formed vapor canopy from 4039 BCE and ambient radiation saturation of animals and vegetable worlds is the origin of the megafauna, the sudden appearance of gigantic mammalian and marsupial life forms in the archeological record. Prior to this cataclysm the world was dominated by marsupials.
The appearance of the megafauna in the archeological record is the great mystery, for these gigantic marsupials and mammals (placentals) appeared ALL AT THE SAME TIME and suddenly.
This giantism effect from ambient radiation was compounded by the greenhouse effect resulting a level of carbon monoxide much denser than today. This antediluvian atmosphere may have had as much as a thousand times more carbon dioxide as today. As plants thrive on carbon dioxide the flora would have been lush and prolific. (3) Plants and animals would have grown to prodigous sizes as plants steadily absorbed carbon dioxide releasing oxygen in astounding quantities inhaled by fauna of gigantic sizes all exhaling carbon dioxide in a feedback loop that kept the world at a tropical climate with minimal cooling at the poles.
It was in May of 3895 BCE that Earth's vapor canopy [Firmament Above] of water and carbon dioxide produced a day time sky full of light but with no visible sun. Not only are there numerous traditions dating from before written records of this amazing sky of purple light with no sun visible, but it lasted 1656 years to another cataclysm known popularly as the Great Deluge when the Vapor Canopy collapsed and the ancient indigenous peoples claimed it was this that gave BIRTH TO THE SUN. Thus began the Four Sun Ages.
The capture of long-wave radiation resulted in a greenhouse effect diffusing light and warmth into the polar regions creating a uniform temperature all year long. Summer and winter were not dissimilar and years were counted by stellar revolutions, diurnal motion observed at night around the pole star Alpha Draconis. That Earth once had a vapor canopy like Venus has today is a theory put forth by Donald Patton in The Biblical Flood and the Ice Epoch. (4)
This was an extinction level event in 3895 BCE for many species involving intense volcanism that saturated the marine water canopy above with ambient radiation that produced gigantism among surviving fauna and flora. The megafauna so well attested in worldwide archeological findings are the remains of the Antediluvian World. During this unstable period volcanic resurfacing, quakes, upheavals and subsidence and flooding produced over a dozen layers of strata, each a testament to the violence of the time.
The Geologic Column hypothesis holding that each deposit is hundreds of thousands to millions of years old is in error. As will be shown, homo sapiens remains have been found fossilized in strata concluded to be millions of years in age. Alluvial resurfacing has been observed in our life time to have produced more than one deposit from a single regional flooding. Establishment scientists desperate to foist natural selection and evolutionary models over our concepts of the past merely contribute in burying evidence of our cataclysmic history- they are loathe to admit that Charles Darwin himself was a catastrophist, who wrote in 1834- "Certainly, no fact in the long history of the world is so startling as the wide and repeated exterminations of its inhabitants." (5)
The megafauna of the Old World died- giant bison, horse, sloths, enormous lions, dire wolves, gigantic bears, sabertooth tigers, mammoths and wooly rhinosaurus- their millions of bodies found deposited in heaps by water, buried in sediment, many in remarkable states of preservation. The death of the megafauna could have been caused by a poleshift that froze to death the millions of animals in northern Asia and Siberia, however, that the same fields of frozen animals are found in the opposite hemisphere in North America reveals that a polar shift or lithospheric displacement is not the answer. Only the sudden flooding and polar freezing of the water canopy collapse answers all the evidence.
Huge herds of wooly mammoths and rhinos died of cold in central Alaska. (6) Dr. Carl Clausen, Florida's Chief Marine Archeologist in 1972 shocked the scientific world by excavating a human skull with a portion of the brain intact from a deposit in a sinkhole dated many thousands of years old. In that same area in 1959 Colonel William Royal also found a skull with an intact brain, also thousands of years buried. Dr. J. Manson Valentine remarked that, "...these skeletal remains with intact brain must have been caught in a catastrophic flood of hot, mineralized water." (7) Also found in Florida at Little Salt Springs were two hand sized prehistoric shark's teeth and bones of the megafauna, of prehistoric bison, mastodon, mammoth, giant ground sloth and giant land tortoise as well as an oak boomerang. (8)
In 1936 CE Tom Kenny of Plateau Valley, Colorado dug a cellar and at a depth of ten feet he unearthed a smooth pavement made of ancient hand-crafted tiles. In the same geological layer were found the fossils of the three-toed Miocene Horse. (9) Strangely, a similar scenario unfolded in Blue Lick Springs, Kentucky where workmen unearthed the bones of a mastodon at a depth of 12 feet, but three feet deeper they uncovered a broad stone pavement made of well-cut and neatly fitted stone slabs. (10)
Geologists agree that in ancient times most of Nevada was an inland sea, and Lake Tahoe, Walker and Pyramid Lake are but surviving relics of this earlier body of water. The region has yielded up the remains of the huge ground sloths, mastodons and rhinos. Arrowheads, ground sloth skulls and hides and well-preserved shreds of hide and course hair not yet decomposed causing some to assume a date of about 3000 BCE. There has also been found evidence that giant sloths had been domesticated. (11)
The early constructions of Jericho also among the Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites. Andrew Collins remarked that the enormity of the walls was because the people of Jericho desperately sought to keep something out. It is my position that the extra high and thick walls were not to keep humans out, but large predatory megafauna. Many of the oldest megalithic settlements share this common trait- enormously thick walls too great to keep out mere humans and roof-to-roof walks as if the people did not feel safe on the ground.
Prior to the cataclysm we can see that the distribution of surviving species of marsupials today that there had been a supercontinent, that Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Southern Africa, South America, southern India had all been connected as ONE LANDMASS. Geologists have identified another landmass called the Miocene Bridge that merged the Americas to Europe and Asia. The pre-3895 BCE world had major marsupial and megafauna-occupied tropical landmasses where the North Atlantic ocean and southern Pacific Antarctic oceans are located today.
The megafauna survived the catastrophe but would over time after 3895 BCE gradually reduce in size closer to their present sizes. At this period in human history Neanderthal survivors were feral predators and colonies of Cro-Magnon also persisted, some interbreeding with the negroid, mongolid, amerindic and dark caucasoid humans at various stages of paleolithic, mesolithic and neolithic illiterate cultures.
We know humans hunted the megafauna for the spear points, arrowheads, and cut bones of ancient camps tell the tales, however, there are NO TRADITIONS passed down from antiquity concerning the megafauna- no legends, no ancestral memories of any people in the world of animals being of such enormous sizes. This is simply because the megafauna diminished in size prior to the advent of literacy that exploded among the human population after 2239 BCE. The ambient radiation and vapor canopy world that caused the animals to grow to such heroic sizes ended with the Great Deluge cataclysm in 2239 BCE.
The rise of the megafauna coincided with the decline of the marsupials which died out mostly. Australia is an isolated fossil-continent survivor of this cataclysmic displacement. Thousands of varieties of marsupials from pre-mammalian antiquity are lost but some survive, and almost all of them in Australia- the kangaroo, kangaroo-rat, wallaby, platipus, the flying fox, the dingo, tasmanean wolf, sloths, giant land birds (winged and wingless) like the emu, anteater (myrmecobius), wombat, flying phalanger, mole (notorycles), native cat (dasyyurus), mouse (dasycercus)- these scientific names are provided because these are unique marsupials having mammalian (placentals) counterparts.
The best scenario is that these animals lived all over the temperate-tropical world at a time when Australia was far beneath the sea. The cataclysm destroyed much of earth's landmasses and elevated the sea floor shoving Ayers Rock into the sky. Australia became a place of refuge for these survivors, the marsupials of the Old World and the mysterious Aborigines...a land that time forgot.
See Chronicon: Timelines of the Ancient Future for more info on this and other catastrophes that occurred in relatively modern times, free on Archaix.com.
(1) Lost Cities of North and Central America p. 208; (2) ibid 208-209; (3) Flying Serpents and Dragons p. 160; (4) Flying Serpents and Dragons p. 93; (5) Atlantis in America: p. 69 citing Journal, 1834; (6) Lost Cities of North and Central America p. 451; (7) Lost Cities of North and Central America p. 400; (8) Lost Cities of North and Central America p. 400; (9) Lost Cities of North and Central America p. 511; (10) ibid p. 511-512; (11) Lost Cities of North and Central America p. 492
submitted by ArchaixArchives to Archaix [link] [comments]


2020.03.31 17:00 Adnotamentum April 2020 - List of currently active /r/xpowers games

List of /xPowers games that are active:

Below is a list of current active games that you can join now.

List of /xPowers game that are in pre-season:

These are games which are expected to start soon.

List of Other Active Games that have Advertised Here

These are other similar but different games that have advertised here in /xpowers.
Also join the xpowers community-wide discord: https://discord.gg/PZvpFm4
submitted by Adnotamentum to xPowers [link] [comments]


2020.02.01 05:59 SkyAnimal A Human Evolution Timeline I have been working on.

(Hello, I am a fan of Lloyd's videos and topics, and was curious about getting you fellows input and feedback on this timeline I created of archaeological, genetic, and geologic data I have collected.)

10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.

6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)

5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.

5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.

4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).

3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.

3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.

2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago

2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.

2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.

1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).

1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.

1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.

1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.

1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.

1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)

1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.

1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.

820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).

800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?

790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)

740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)

530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).

500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears.

450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.

450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.

430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).

400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).

400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.

360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).

300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)

270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).

200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time.

194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.

190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)

190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.

170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)

140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.

130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.

125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.

110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.

100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.

100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, pigment (paint) creation kit found.

75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.

75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.

73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.

72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.

70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world.

70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?

70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.

67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.

65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.

64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).

61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.

60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.

55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.

52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.

50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).

50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.

50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).

45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)

44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.

44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.

43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.

42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.

40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.

40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.

38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.

40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.

35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.

35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.

31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.

30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)

30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.

28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.

25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.

27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.

26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)

23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).

23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.

21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.

20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.

19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.

17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.

18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.

18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.

15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.

15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.

14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.

14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.

14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.

14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.

13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.

15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.

12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)

11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.

13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.

13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.

12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum.

10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.

11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.

9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.

11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.

11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).

9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.

9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.

9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.

9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.

11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.

11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)

11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.

8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.

8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.

8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).

10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.

10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).

10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.

8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.

78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.

9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.

7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).

7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.

7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.

7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.

7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)

6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)

6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.

8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?

6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.

8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.

6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.

7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.

7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.

7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.

6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.

6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.

5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).

5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).

5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.

5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.

5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.

4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).

4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.

4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.

4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.

4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.

4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.

4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).

6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)

3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.

5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.

3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.

5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)

3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting; used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).

3500 - 3350 BCE - Earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles, Mesopotamia. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.

3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.

5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.

3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.

3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.

3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.

3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.

3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.

2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered.

2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.

2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.

2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.

2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.

2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.

2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).

2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.

2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.

2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).

2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.

2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.

2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)

4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.

2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown.

1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.

1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).

1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.

1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.

1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.

1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.

1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs; archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.

1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.

1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”

1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.

1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)

1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).

1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.

1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.

1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."

1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.

1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.

1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.

1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?

1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.

1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.

1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.

930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.

800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.

800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.

700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.

700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.

600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.

600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy

550 BCE - The Illiad written down.

500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.

400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.

396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.

314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.

298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.

200 BCE - China starts making paper.

100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.

400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.

800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.

1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.

1250 - 1850 CE - Earth experiences a small Ice Age.

1500 CE - Concept of Religion becomes clearly defined.

1650 CE - Pendulum Clock.

1750 CE - France, Strawberry grown in garden. Barbados, Grapefruit.

1880 CE (140 years ago), Carnegie steel erects skyscrapers.
submitted by SkyAnimal to lindybeige [link] [comments]


2020.01.09 01:02 SkyAnimal Human History Timeline I Created.

(Big fan and history nerd. I created this timeline on Facebook and thought I would share on here and Shadiversity. Unfortunately, Reddit thinks my post was spam. So I am resubbitting and changing some things. I would like to get people's input and feedback about things.)

Earth's orbit experiences a Orbital Eccentricity, 100,000 year cycle orbit and inclination variation, going from circular to elliptical, the hemispheres experience more or less sun or exposure to the sun for extended periods, causing ice ages. Scientists estimate we are near the minimum, a 6% change in solar energy. At peak, the earth experiences a change of 30%.
10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.
6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)
5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.
5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.
4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).
3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.
3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.
2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago
2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.
2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.
1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).
1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.
1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.
1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.
1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.
1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)
1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.
1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.
820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).
800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?
790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)
740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)
530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).
500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears. (Would become common 300,000 years ago.)
450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.
450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.
430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).
400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).
400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.
360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).
300,000 y a - Kenya, oldest evidence of Ochre rocks being used for pigment.
300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)
270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).
200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time. Scientists think that language with well formed, meaningful sentences was achieved (migration patterns, anatomy, tool making; some argue that truly modern language is 50,000 years old).
194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.
190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)
190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.
170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)
140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.
130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.
125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.
110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.
100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.
100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, Blombos Cave, pigment (paint) creation kit found; possible oldest evidence of abstract art.
75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.
75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.
73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.
72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.
70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. Earliest evidence of Glue (sticky tree gum, ochre rocks, fat cooked over fire).
70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?
70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.
67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.
65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.
64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).
61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.
60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.
55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.
52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.
52-41,000 y a - France, Neanderthal site, bast (tree inner fiber) yarn found (evidence of basic math and organizational skills for patterns and sets, clothing, nets, tools)
50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).
50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.
50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).
45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)
44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.
44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.
43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.
42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.
40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.
40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.
38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.
40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.
35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.
35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.
31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.
30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)
30-15,000 y a - DNA evidence of Denisovan interbreeding with Homo Sapiens.
30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.
28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.
25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.
27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.
26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)
23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).
23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.
21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.
20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.
19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.
17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.
18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.
18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.
15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.
15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.
14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.
14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.
14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.
14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.
13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.
15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.
12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)
11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.
13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.
13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.
12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum.
10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.
11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.
9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.
11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.
11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).
9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.
9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.
9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.
9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.
11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.
11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)
11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.
8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.
8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.
8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).
10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.
10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).
10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.
8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.
78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.
9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.
7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).
7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.
7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.
7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.
7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)
6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)
6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.
8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?
6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.
8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.
6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.
7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.
7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.
7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.
6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.
6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.
5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).
5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).
5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.
5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.
5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.
4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).
4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.
4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.
4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.
4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.
4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.
4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).
6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)
3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.
5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.
3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.
5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)
3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting; used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).
3500 - 3350 BCE - Earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles, Mesopotamia. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.
3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.
5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.
3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.
3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.
3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.
3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.
3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.
2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered.
2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.
2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.
2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.
2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.
2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.
2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).
2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.
2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.
2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).
2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.
2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.
2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)
4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.
2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown.
1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.
1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).
1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.
1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.
1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.
1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.
1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs; archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.
1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.
1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”
1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.
1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)
1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).
1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.
1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.
1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."
1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.
1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.
1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.
1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?
1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.
1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.
1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.
930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.
800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.
800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.
700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.
700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.
600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.
600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy
550 BCE - The Illiad written down.
500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.
400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.
396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.
314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.
298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.
200 BCE - China starts making paper.
submitted by SkyAnimal to InvictaHistory [link] [comments]


2020.01.08 07:43 SkyAnimal Timeline of Human Development

(I used data of environment, archeological discovers, and even genetic evidence. I believe I have finished editing and adding information to this timeline. Hope you guys enjoy and find neat things to either add or discuss.)

10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.
6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then; each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)
5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.
5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.
4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).
3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.
3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.
2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago); the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago); and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago
2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.
2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.
1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).
1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.
1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.
1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.
1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.
1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution; however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)
1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.
1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.
820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).
800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?
790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)
740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)
530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).
500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears.
450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.
450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.
430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).
400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).
400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.
360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).
300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from.
270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.
240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).
200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time.
194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.
190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)
190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.
170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing; evidence of clothing)
140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.
130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.
125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.
110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.
100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.
100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, pigment (paint) creation kit found.
75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.
75,000 y a - Art: Drilled, snail shells found in South African cave.
73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.
72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.
70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world.
70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?
70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.
67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.
65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.
64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).
61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.
60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?
60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.
55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.
52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.
50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).
50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.
50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).
45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)
44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.
44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.
43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.
42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence; earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.
40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.
40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.
38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried; thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes; grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter; found buried with owners; were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.
40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.
35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly); would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.
35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.
31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.
30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)
30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia. Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form in the Fertile Crescent. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.
28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.
25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.
27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.
26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)
23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).
23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.
21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.
20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.
19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.
17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.
18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.
18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.
15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.
15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute; "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.
14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.
14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.
14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.
14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.
13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.
15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.
12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)
11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.
13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.
13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.
12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum.
10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.
11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.
9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.
11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.
11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).
9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.
9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.
9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.
9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.
11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep; Rammed Earth construction technique developed.
11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors); Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)
11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.
8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.
8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.
8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).
10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.
10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).
10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.
8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.
78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.
9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.
7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).
7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.
7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery; evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art; evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.
7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.
7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)
6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)
6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.
8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?
6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.
8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation; man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.
6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.
7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.
7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.
7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.
6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.
6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.
5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).
5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).
5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.
5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.
5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production); Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes; Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.
4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).
4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.
4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France; would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.
4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.
4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.
4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures; manufacturing Papyrus; Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead; patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives; start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production; Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use; Mirrors made of Copper. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.
4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).
6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)
3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.
5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.
3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.
5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)
3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids); "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found; Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication; Gold Smelting. Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).
3500 - 3350 BCE - Earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles, Mesopotamia. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.
3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.
5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.
3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.
3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.
3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.
3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.
3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation; Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal); possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep; Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup; earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo); Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.
2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered.
2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.
2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.
2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.
2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.
2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.
2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).
2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.
2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.
2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit).
2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.
2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.
2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)
4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.
2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding); domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown.
1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues; Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.
1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance; theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).
1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.
1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.
1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.
1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.
1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs.
1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.
1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”
1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.
1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)
1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).
1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.
1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.
1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."
1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.
1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.
1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.
1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?
1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.
1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.
1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp; rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.
930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.
800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.
800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.
700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.
700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.
600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.
600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy
550 BCE - The Illiad written down.
500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.
400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.
396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.
314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.
298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.
200 BCE - China starts making paper.
100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.
400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.
800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.
1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.
1250 - 1850 CE - Earth experiences a small Ice Age.
1500 CE - Concept of Religion becomes clearly defined.
1750 CE - France, Strawberry grown in garden. Barbados, Grapefruit.
1880 CE (140 years ago), Carnegie steel erects skyscrapers.
submitted by SkyAnimal to Shadiversity [link] [comments]


2019.12.22 09:27 ThurneysenHavets Evolution isn’t real, unless it’s decades-scale hyper-evolution on steroids... some specific examples from the historical record.

Today’s “kinds”, in the YEC view, descend from a single couple on the ark (ca. 2300 BCE), which evolved into the many different species we see today, over the course of four thousand years.
Enter, however, a lovely little thing called the historical record, which seriously fucks with this theory.
The fact that modern animals are frequently attested, as far as records go (which is pretty much right up to the Tower of Babel, about a century post-flood, if you’re a YEC), with the physical and behavioral characteristics of modern animals, is strong evidence against this YEC model.
This post gives some specific examples of where the historical and archaeological record further constrains already implausible YEC micro-evolution narrative. I’m putting it here for reference. It shows that creationists have, at best, a century or two to play with for many of the kinds they postulate.
(Note: creationists can’t agree on their own bullshit revisionist timelines, so I usually haven’t tried to translate real dates into YEC dates. But these would all have to be a matter of a few centuries at most.)
Evidence for diversification of the cat kind
All one species on the ark, around 2300 BCE. Yet we find, among many other things...
  • An extremely clear picture of a lion from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, conventionally around 2550 BCE (figure 8 here).
  • Pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egyptian tombs containing remains of both wild cats and leopards. See here, here and here.
  • A Proto-Sumerian (conventionally 3000 BCE) depiction of a leopard
So that’s a conventional 15.2 million years (lion/domestic cat on timetree.org) compressed into a few centuries max.
Evidence for diversification of the sheep kind
Instead of 9.75 million years (sheep/goat on timetree.org).
Evidence for diversification of the horse kind
  • An 18th century BCE text distinguishing between horse and mule.
  • The notion of the donkey as stubborn (inaccurate, but the stereotype is based on actual behaviour traits of this equid which differ from horse traits) dates back at least to Sumerian texts from 2100-1800 B.C.E.
  • Donkey remains from early dynastic Egypt.
Particularly interesting is the fact that mules (horse-donkey hybrids) have been infertile since as far as our historical records go. Even where it is not otherwise stated it can be inferred from their market value, as outlined here; the fact that mules were so expensive is reflective of the fact that they could not simply be bred.
This is further significant in that deliberately breeding hybrids suggests some experience in equid domestication. By any reasonable scenario, therefore, this pushes horse-onager and horse-donkey divergence even further back. We're presumably playing with decades here. Instead of a conventional 7.7 million years (horse/donkey on timetree.org).
Evidence for diversification of the eagle kind
“Includes hawks, but also kites, harriers, eagles, and Old World vultures.”
That makes, again, a few centuries max instead of conventional 31 million years (eagle/kite on timetree.org).
On a side note, I must say I never realised just how brazenly amateurish baraminology was:
When hybrid data is lacking, a cognitum approach is preferred; this identifies natural groupings based on human cognitive senses
So a smart creationist might try to rescue the creationist view by saying they’ve just messed up the kinds and those kinds are actually multiple kinds.
But then again, on the flip side of the coin, you have to fit all these animals onto a wooden ship that’s already too big to be seaworthy as described in the Bible. So no succour, I’m afraid, on that front.
submitted by ThurneysenHavets to DebateEvolution [link] [comments]


2019.12.22 02:44 caspears76 Is China really 5,000 years old or is that propaganda?

I would say it is fair to say Chinese civilization began in the Shang Dynasty.
1046 BCE…so that would make China 3000 years old which I think is generous because I personally think the Shang Dates are exaggerated…hell ancient history in general. The goal of writing “histories” until Herodotus and Sima Qian was not numerical accuracy.
If you doubt what I said about innumeracy here is a good example: evidence.
Let's continue…
In a way this is an extension of an answer I wrote about the origin of the Sino languages (Chinese dialects)…
Collin Spears's answer to Did Chinese dialects develop from local Neolithic people, or were they introduced later from the Sino-Tibetan Himalayas? (Collin Spears's answer to Did Chinese dialects develop from local Neolithic people, or were they introduced later from the Sino-Tibetan Himalayas?)
So evidence that the Xia Dynasty existed?
I know that reading about the Xia seems to be like reading Greek mythology or the bible, it is hard to tell what is real and what was fantasy, because during that time period there were no formal “histories”.
History as we know it was invented a few times, but the people attributed most to formalizing written history were Herodotus (Herodotus - Wikipedia) in Greece (484–c. 425 BCE) and Sima Qian (Sima Qian - Wikipedia) (司马迁) in China (145 or 135 BCE).
The Xia Dynasty supposedly existed 2070 – c. 1600 BCE - almost 500 years, and ended 1455 years before the birth of Sima Qian. Sima Qian wrote about the Xia Dynasty, but this like me writing about the UK in 562CE, at a time when most people were illiterate, based on what I could piece together from oral tradition and whatever scarce documentation was around. Then what could be authenticated, verified? You can see the problem.
It is thought Sino Tibetan tribes were in the area of Gansu, Qinghai, and Shaanxi along the Yellow River going back to 6500 BCE. Please see my link above for my detail and a link back to a linguistic study.
So many believe the Erlitou Culture were the ancient Xia. Erlitou civilization (Erlitou culture - Wikipedia) existed between 1900 to 1500 BCE. It was originally discovered in Henan, however other sites have been found in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hubei. Erlitou supposed evolved from Longshan culture (Longshan culture - Wikipedia), however we will stay focused on Erlitou because that is usually sited as being the historic Xia.
The maps will help orient you if you are not familiar with China’s geography…keep in mind the Yellow River has changed course overtime.
**The Erlitou Civilization existed, however there is no direct, irrefutable evidence that Erlitou was Xia.**
**That’s the rub. It is all speculation. There is no agreement in the literature that Erlitou or the later Longshan was definitely Xia or related to Xia. Most of the people who speak with some certainty are Chinese archeologist, but not all of them. Still it looks like a good fit.**
We do not even know if all the Xia were Sino-Tibetan speakers, there is some belief that the Xia and even later Shang might have been a mix of various ethnic groups consolidated under one rule, and from that the Hua-xia formed, as a confederation of sorts. That is also speculation.
Xia and Shang had no real written records, what we know about them came from the Warring States Period (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wa...and) later…so 1200 years after the Xia Dynasty would have ended! Once again that is similar to British writings about King Arthur and Camelot (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ki...%E2%80%A6also) semi-historical, maybe, but mostly legend.
**Other Sources (besides Wiki)**
http://sino-platonic.org/complet... (http://sino-platonic.org/complet...)
There conclusion was similar to my own:
>There currently exists no convincing inscriptional, paleographic, or linguistic evidence for a Xià Dynasty that allegedly preceded the Shāng Dynasty. All mythological and historical evidence for a putative Xià Dynasty dates to the Warring States or later periods and is seriously compromised by various textual and political / ideological problems. No amount of archaeological evidence (traces of walls, palaces, halls, terraces, streets, etc.) will be sufficient to certify the existence of a Xià Dynasty that is supposed to have preceded the Shāng — unless:
>1. it contains written materials a. mentioning the Xià directly and / or XXX Victor H. Mair, “Was There a Xià Dynasty?” Sino-Platonic Papers, 238 (May 2013) 32 b. corroborating the late (Warring States and after) textual claims of a Xià by referring to specific kings, cities, events, and so forth, or
>2. it is substantiated by new discoveries of primary materials from the Western Zhōu or Shāng that explicitly mention the Xià and / or its rulers, capitals, etc. Considering the totality of the evidence presented here, it is highly unlikely that either of these eventualities will ever take place. In the words of the ever-cautious Chinese scholar, dàikǎo — further investigation needs to be carried out before one can affirm with assurance that the Shāng Dynasty was preceded by a supposed Xià Dynasty. Since acceptance of the historicity of the alleged Xià Dynasty must be held in abeyance until confirmatory evidence is obtained, it follows that the notion of the supposed Sāndài (the “Three Dynasties”, i.e., Xià, Shāng, Zhōu) must also be placed in suspension as lacking authenticity.
>Was there a Xià Dynasty? Not on present evidence.
Addendum:
I know about the Oracle Bones so please stop posting that in the comment section. The Shang Dynasty timeline is supposed to be from 16th century BC–c. 1046 BC
The Oracle bones don’t cover that timeline.
Also just because someone wrote something at one point and time doesn’t mean they wrote the truth. As I said: “The goal of writing “histories” until Herodotus and Sima Qian was not numerical or factual accuracy.”
submitted by caspears76 to u/caspears76 [link] [comments]


2019.08.30 17:21 frisk-scp999 Guardians, mortal factions: the Anomalous Containment Foundation (timeline)

The ACF, the main mortal faction in the new arc of my largest world, Guardians.
They are a secret organization formed during the 1800s in the prime of the Napoleonic wars, having the knowledge on beings outside of the universe such as the guardians and leviathans, and the knowledge of the existence of the things not known that are in this universe. The ACF is the first and last line of defense against such threats until the rest of mankind can do so on their own
The first part of the new Guardians lore posts I will be making is going to be timeline in their perspective, anything important to them, and some background for characters if nessecary. This, is the timeline currently known by the ACF that is put into their latest archive of knowledge (most global events would be ignored in order to focus more on lore):
20 billion years ago: height of the second corrupted war, not much is known by the ACF, but they do know that it's not even the biggest war ever fought in their realm. This is the time where the firstborns entered the scene and joined the forces of the higher realms, destroying the so called entity 607, or Gerrion in his real name. Guardians gone into hiding, and the new born gods started to emerge
13 billion years ago: Big bang, birth of steronn guardian of humankind, and the first demonic incursions emerge from the void, creating now the infamous faction the Demon's church of amon
200k BCE: rise of homo sapiens, fall of the precursors and the emergence of monoliths as a sign currently unknown on its meaning
50k BCE: first generation of the new born gods started to claim universes and worlds for their own
1865: the known historical date of a discovery of the remains of a dead guardian, a shard that soon will be the key to unlocking weapons used to fight against the corrupted. First born entity contact is made, formation of a pre-ACF organization
1945: height of the second world war, climax of the 3rd demonic crusade that is quickly halted by a first borns' sentinel drone, formation of the ACF-psi ops division in order to fight the anomalous and the unexplained, also as a way to equalize the power balance between demons and humans
1970: 4th demonic crusade, this time demons are adapted to the human-dominated world by turning into humans, covert ops are initiated and ended their incursions. Demons gone silent
2004: detection of corruption leaking into our reality, guardian technology reverse engineering invented the Sentinel suit to combat greater threats
2018: 5th demonic "crusade" quickly discovered to be a hoax
2040: Global union is formed, the inner solar system are colonized
2150: third contact with the first borns, the warned that the dark times are coming
2200: the solar federation is formed, a gateway is discovered on earth, a frontal organization is formed by the council in order to explore it (this is the official start of my fantasy-scifi world Gateway), 20th year anniversary of the end of the human-taarian war
2450: official alliance with the first borns, the official 5th demonic crusade, psi ops division created a second branch called the hunters' division in order to deal with them
2600: the official beginning of the third corrupted crusade, the dimension of hell broke loose into various universes spewing more paranormal threats, the ACF quickly took action being undercover federation council program to defeat these spontaneous threats, marking the closest time the ACF being discovered by the wide public eye
2800: end of the First born-Aether war, they quickly take action and suppress most dimensional incursions of both hell and the corrupted
3000: the entity leading the corrupted is discovered, codenamed 705 and have been put into a possible realm spanning threat. Beginning of the "new apocalypse war" arc
submitted by frisk-scp999 to worldbuilding [link] [comments]


2019.08.29 06:35 DGBD Writing Prompt Prompts Writing and Bad History

Link:
https://np.reddit.com/WritingPrompts/comments/cwfub4/wp_in_the_year_1105_bc_you_helped_a_man_escape_an/eyb7ow
To be honest, writing prompts and fiction in general are probably a sort of grey area here. I mean, who's to say that whatever universe something was written in is the same universe as we ourselves live in, right? But this is particularly egregious because of some profound misunderstandings of timeline inherent in the story, to the point that it makes very little sense unless our universe is profoundly different than the one this takes place in (and I don't think it is).
So, according to the prompt, a person is mysteriously granted immortality in the year 1105 BC. Our first historical incident is this:
But now I was standing there, in an old home of mine, from two thousand years ago, and I was looking at another image I made. “Roman Mosaic discovered” was the headline this morning
Roman mosaics have been found starting around the 2nd century BC. Someone who was granted immortality in 1105 BC would have lived through this time. All's well and good.
flip out and rampage for years. Like the first time I have up 101 years after the handshake.
First off, "have" should probably be "gave," which makes more sense in context. The person flipped out and "rampaged" in approximately 1004 BC, which seems to have no real big historical meaning. Odd that he's being so specific, but maybe it's just to add some kind of atmosphere or something.
even had my DNA sequenced, you know, 23&me and things. I had hoped that he might have imprinted something on my DNA, but nothing showed up. But apparently I just have a LOT of relatives. I guess almost 3000 years of unprotected sex will do that. Particularly during the rampaging.
This is sort of BadGenetics, although maybe in the magical world in which someone is granted immortality it also alters their genome. However, that 3000 years will become relevant soon.
Roman history bores me, but I did move their after a while. So I guess I lived it.
Again, he could well have lived the history of Ancient Rome had he been granted immortality in 1105 BC.
“Ah yes, finally. Maybe you can help us decipher this text. We have no idea how it found it’s way into the mosaic. We only found it by accident, apparently it was written in blood.” He said as he turns on the black light. “We kept this quiet, because how the hell would ancient Mongolian end up here?”
This is where things start getting really, really confusing. There is no such language as "Ancient Mongolian." At the time of Ancient Rome, people in what is now Mongolia spoke a language termed "pre-proto-Mongolic." It had no writing system that we are aware of. The earliest writing system we know of in the area belonged to the Xianbei of the first few centuries AD, but no examples of this writing system survive.
The earliest identifiable writing in what could be called "Mongolian" would be from around the time of Genghis Khan, in the 1200s AD. This will be important later. Actually, it'll be important now.
Wait, I think, Mongolian? And as I look back onto the mosaic, I see a message. Addressed to me:
Genghis, You will never find me. Your brother.
Aha, the big reveal! This dude is Genghis Khan!
Wait, what?
First off, Genghis Khan was not a man who would be found under a phone book under Khan, Genghis. His name was Temüjin, and Genghis Khan is essentially a title. But hey, maybe this mysterious person would call him by his title in some kind of playful way.
The bigger issue is that Genghis Khan would not have been Genghis Khan at the same time that the mosaics of Ancient Rome were being made. However you denote the end of Ancient Rome, it was well before the 12th century, when Genghis was born. And the guy does say that the home was from 2000 years ago, or roughly the first century AD.
Maybe the blood’s from later. Maybe the mosaic is not original to the house. Maybe I’m just really confused. It makes sense to everyone else, who seems to be fawning over this bit of writing.
But then I looked at the dates. 1105 BC. A rampage 101 years after. Genghis Khan became Khan in 1206. AKA, 101 years after 1105 AD.
AHA! This dude switch AD and BC! This makes more sense! The Roman stuff is a little strange, but again, maybe he's referencing some other age of mosaic-making. He either misread it as 1105 AD or didn't care, and all of this makes a lot more sense.
All of it, that is, except for the part about "3000 years of unprotected sex." The writer must not have been mistaken, then. This story is actually counting from 1105 BC. According to this story, Genghis Khan was crowned in 1206 BC. According to this story, 101 years in the future from 1105 BC would be 1206 BC. According to this story, there was a cohesive writing system in Mongolia in the second millenium BC.
This is some seriously bad history, with 3870 upvotes and gold. And besides the Genghis Khan /Temujin name thing, no one has seemingly brought it up. Oof.
EDIT:
Bibliography:
Timeline of the Mongol Empire: The Mongol Conquests in Human History by Timothy May (very interesting book, BTW)
Timeline of the Mongolic languages: The Mongolic Languages, Juha Janhunen
If you're wondering how adding and subtracting years in BC/AD (or BCE/CE) works : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anno_Domini
submitted by DGBD to badhistory [link] [comments]


2019.05.27 19:35 Gutsick_Gibbon Coral and Coral Reefs Preclude a Global Flood and Young Earth Creationism

Today's subject is that of the one of the most basal organisms on our planet, and it is capable on it's own of disrupting the possibility of a global flood as well as a 6000 year old Earth. It also validates Evolutionary Theory and the currently listed mass extinctions.
It may be a simple cnidarian, but we'll explore just how damaging this animal is to a literalist interpretation of the Bible.
Part 1: The Crash Course on Corals
Corals are marine invertebrates of the phylum Cnidaria. They are sessile, meaning they lack a means of locomotion, and individual corals (polyps) form coral groups known as colonies, whose polyps are thus genetically identical. They reproduce primarily sexually though, and coral colonies will release gametes into open water simultaneously according to the lunar cycle.
As such, coral reefs are made of many coral colonies which many vary on species, but all of which grow upwards and outwards asexually. In the case of stony coral (as opposed to the other type, soft coral) their immense skeleton is made of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite (both polymorphs of limestone).
Coral reefs are interesting though, due to their nature of growth. As coral reefs proliferate, coral groups die and are replaced by new polyps. This leads to a continuous growth of new coral colonies on the dead skeletons of their colonial fore-bearers.
In fact, the largest reefs on our planet are living coral groups on thousands of years of dead coral groups including the Great Barrier Reef.
The coral type we are going to investigate here is that of large stony corals (scleractinian) which build shallow-water coral reefs, including fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls; the majority of which occur in tropical and subtropical seas. This is because these particular corals are not only incredibly common, but they are of interest thanks to their abysmally slow growth rate adding an average of 0.2-1.0 inches per year to the overall height of the reef.
According to this same source corals have ideal growing conditions that apply generally across the board: " Coral reefs grow best in warm water (70–85° F or 21–29° C). Corals prefer clear and shallow water, where lots of sunlight filters through to their symbiotic algae. It is possible to find corals at depths of up to 300 feet (91 meters), but reef-building corals grow poorly below 60–90 feet (18–27 meters). Corals need salt water to survive, so they grow poorly near river openings or coastal areas with excessive runoff."
All of the following will be important to remember and refer to for the following analysis.
Part 2: A History of Corals
Geologically, we first see corals appear in Cambrian rock, although their record really begins to bloom in the Ordovician. Here we see the rise of the incredibly prolific Rugose Corals.
They are represented heavily in the Thorton Reef in Illinois at the Silurian Racine Formation, where ancient reef cavities are filled with thick oil, and layering is interspersed. The Devonian Tract in Alberta is similar.
These corals no longer exist today, as they were wiped out in the Permian, leaving an enormous void in the fossil record. But shortly after in the Triassic the scleractinian corals arrive on the scene, and become the dominant corals we see today.
This is important: Prior to the extinction of the Rugose corals, we never see a scleractinian specimen in the fossil record. It isn't until the rugose niche opens up that the scleractinians can diversify into their spots. This is not to say that scleractians did not exist before the Triassic, but rather, they were represented by much fewer species due to competition with the rugose corals. In fact, current molecular data suggests that scleractinians were out and about deep in the Paleozoic, but their radiation was choked by the sheer success of the rugose species.
The shoe would be on the other foot though, as the anoxic conditions that obliterated the rugose corals could not squelch the scleractinians, who had been quietly subsisting in the background. They would explode in diversity in the Mid-Triassic once a symbiotic relationship with algae was developed.
Part 3: Corals Confound Creationists
So hopefully you're already seeing the problems, but let's point them out and dive in a bit more.
Rugose Coral Reefs bust up a Global Flood AND a Young Earth
Flood Geology generally has the first layer of the flood deposits as that which overlays the basement granite of our planet, or layers corresponding to the Pre-Cambrian. In the context of the Grand Canyon, this would be the Grand Canyon Supergroup as the first.
Now, as we mentioned above, Thorton Reef is a Silurian Reef, and the Silurian begins some 443 MYA. This is certainly smack-dab in the middle of the Flood Layers.
Thorton Reef is a remarkably intact reef, with incredibly preserved brittle coral heads, crinoid fossils and other fragile organisms. But it is located in a layer that would have been deposited in the very heat of what is considered by Creationists as the most powerful natural disaster of all time.
But somehow we are expected to accept an enormous global flood that instantly buried some organisms, and tore other apart (depending on the state of the fossil examined), raged for months without burying an enormous reef, and then, midway through, covered it instantly without it's earthshaking power obliterating all the fragile bits.
The Rugose corals too are slow growers and make up an enormous tract of land in the Devonian formation in Alberta: "...the Upper Devonian Swan Hills Formation of the Beaverhill Lake Group. Kaybob reef is a flat north-south elongate lens, 250 ft thick, 11 mi long, and 3 mi wide, built on the Slave Point Formation, a widespread platform carbonate."
It is far too large to have formed in less than 3000 years from Creation to the Flood, even using the most liberal Creation date by YEC's of 10,000 years.
Add to this the trouble of the flood wiping out all corals, due to their requirements clear shallow water and low turbidity (rugose corals are shown to require these as well, given the shaping of the Thornton Reef) and all current reefs then having a maximum age of 4319 years (presuming the flood was in 2300 BCE)
And Modern Corals do the Same.
Take the Enewetok atoll. This atoll was cored many decades ago, and indicated that it is an enormous coral reef growing on volcanic rock. As the volcanic rock sunk (as some do) the coral was forced to grow upwards in order to maintain proper conditions. This is similar to how trees grow towards sunlight. And it created a massive slab of coral around 1380 meters thick, nearly a mile. The deepest parts were so old, that the aragonite skeletons of the coral were geochemically converted to dolomite.
Let's give Creationists the best possible scenario and assume all these corals are growing at the fastest known coral growth rate of 8 inches per year. To be clear, we know that these corals abide by the far more common growth rate of 0.1-1.0 inches per year, but we're being generous.
A depth of 4540.8 feet X 12 inches / 8 inches per year yields an age of 6811.2 years. nearly 3000 years too old to have begun growing before the flood, and using the most generous possible growth rate, applied to corals who definitively do not grow that quickly.
The more realistic math using these species actual growth rates gives the atoll a minimum age of 138,000 years old, and that is still eliminating any erosional events in the core sample.
Coral Reefs line Enewetok or the Great Barrier Reef are ignored though, or spun to fit the narrative as in this link, where Old Earth Ministries busts YEC authors Snelling and Reed for misrepresentation, or, dishonesty.
Sometimes in an effort to explain this, Creationists invoke that the ancient coral colonies such as Thorton did not grow in one place, but are a result of many colonies that grew in separate places and were transported to a new location by the current, and subsequently buried.
Of course this brings us right back around to the problem of the fragile corals and other organisms, as well as the orientation of the reef itself. If it were carried by strong currents and placed elsewhere it should be heavy-side-down. But the heavy part of the reef, the enormous upward growth, is facing upward as it would if it had never been moved.
And so, Creationists are left with either invoking coral growth faster than ever before seen (which is not empirical) or suggesting physics defying currents, which have also never been seen.
Conclusion/TL;DR
Corals are incredible animals whose appearance, diversification and persistence in the fossil record aligns not with sudden Creation but with Evolutionary Theory given the succession of Rugose corals by Scleractinians. Additionally, their growth rates even at their most generous preclude the traditional YEC timeline both in modern reefs and ancient reefs. This leaves Creationists dealing with the coral issue by ignoring it or invoking never-before-seen physics and biologic concepts.
submitted by Gutsick_Gibbon to CreationEvolution [link] [comments]


2019.05.27 19:34 Gutsick_Gibbon Coral and Coral Reefs Preclude a Global Flood and Young Earth Creationism

Today's subject is that of the one of the most basal organisms on our planet, and it is capable on it's own of disrupting the possibility of a global flood as well as a 6000 year old Earth. It also validates Evolutionary Theory and the currently listed mass extinctions.
It may be a simple cnidarian, but we'll explore just how damaging this animal is to a literalist interpretation of the Bible.
Part 1: The Crash Course on Corals
Corals are marine invertebrates of the phylum Cnidaria. They are sessile, meaning they lack a means of locomotion, and individual corals (polyps) form coral groups known as colonies, whose polyps are thus genetically identical. They reproduce primarily sexually though, and coral colonies will release gametes into open water simultaneously according to the lunar cycle.
As such, coral reefs are made of many coral colonies which many vary on species, but all of which grow upwards and outwards asexually. In the case of stony coral (as opposed to the other type, soft coral) their immense skeleton is made of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite (both polymorphs of limestone).
Coral reefs are interesting though, due to their nature of growth. As coral reefs proliferate, coral groups die and are replaced by new polyps. This leads to a continuous growth of new coral colonies on the dead skeletons of their colonial fore-bearers.
In fact, the largest reefs on our planet are living coral groups on thousands of years of dead coral groups including the Great Barrier Reef.
The coral type we are going to investigate here is that of large stony corals (scleractinian) which build shallow-water coral reefs, including fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls; the majority of which occur in tropical and subtropical seas. This is because these particular corals are not only incredibly common, but they are of interest thanks to their abysmally slow growth rate adding an average of 0.2-1.0 inches per year to the overall height of the reef.
According to this same source corals have ideal growing conditions that apply generally across the board: " Coral reefs grow best in warm water (70–85° F or 21–29° C). Corals prefer clear and shallow water, where lots of sunlight filters through to their symbiotic algae. It is possible to find corals at depths of up to 300 feet (91 meters), but reef-building corals grow poorly below 60–90 feet (18–27 meters). Corals need salt water to survive, so they grow poorly near river openings or coastal areas with excessive runoff."
All of the following will be important to remember and refer to for the following analysis.
Part 2: A History of Corals
Geologically, we first see corals appear in Cambrian rock, although their record really begins to bloom in the Ordovician. Here we see the rise of the incredibly prolific Rugose Corals.
They are represented heavily in the Thorton Reef in Illinois at the Silurian Racine Formation, where ancient reef cavities are filled with thick oil, and layering is interspersed. The Devonian Tract in Alberta is similar.
These corals no longer exist today, as they were wiped out in the Permian, leaving an enormous void in the fossil record. But shortly after in the Triassic the scleractinian corals arrive on the scene, and become the dominant corals we see today.
This is important: Prior to the extinction of the Rugose corals, we never see a scleractinian specimen in the fossil record. It isn't until the rugose niche opens up that the scleractinians can diversify into their spots. This is not to say that scleractians did not exist before the Triassic, but rather, they were represented by much fewer species due to competition with the rugose corals. In fact, current molecular data suggests that scleractinians were out and about deep in the Paleozoic, but their radiation was choked by the sheer success of the rugose species.
The shoe would be on the other foot though, as the anoxic conditions that obliterated the rugose corals could not squelch the scleractinians, who had been quietly subsisting in the background. They would explode in diversity in the Mid-Triassic once a symbiotic relationship with algae was developed.
Part 3: Corals Confound Creationists
So hopefully you're already seeing the problems, but let's point them out and dive in a bit more.
Rugose Coral Reefs bust up a Global Flood AND a Young Earth
Flood Geology generally has the first layer of the flood deposits as that which overlays the basement granite of our planet, or layers corresponding to the Pre-Cambrian. In the context of the Grand Canyon, this would be the Grand Canyon Supergroup as the first.
Now, as we mentioned above, Thorton Reef is a Silurian Reef, and the Silurian begins some 443 MYA. This is certainly smack-dab in the middle of the Flood Layers.
Thorton Reef is a remarkably intact reef, with incredibly preserved brittle coral heads, crinoid fossils and other fragile organisms. But it is located in a layer that would have been deposited in the very heat of what is considered by Creationists as the most powerful natural disaster of all time.
But somehow we are expected to accept an enormous global flood that instantly buried some organisms, and tore other apart (depending on the state of the fossil examined), raged for months without burying an enormous reef, and then, midway through, covered it instantly without it's earthshaking power obliterating all the fragile bits.
The Rugose corals too are slow growers and make up an enormous tract of land in the Devonian formation in Alberta: "...the Upper Devonian Swan Hills Formation of the Beaverhill Lake Group. Kaybob reef is a flat north-south elongate lens, 250 ft thick, 11 mi long, and 3 mi wide, built on the Slave Point Formation, a widespread platform carbonate."
It is far too large to have formed in less than 3000 years from Creation to the Flood, even using the most liberal Creation date by YEC's of 10,000 years.
Add to this the trouble of the flood wiping out all corals, due to their requirements clear shallow water and low turbidity (rugose corals are shown to require these as well, given the shaping of the Thornton Reef) and all current reefs then having a maximum age of 4319 years (presuming the flood was in 2300 BCE)
And Modern Corals do the Same.
Take the Enewetok atoll. This atoll was cored many decades ago, and indicated that it is an enormous coral reef growing on volcanic rock. As the volcanic rock sunk (as some do) the coral was forced to grow upwards in order to maintain proper conditions. This is similar to how trees grow towards sunlight. And it created a massive slab of coral around 1380 meters thick, nearly a mile. The deepest parts were so old, that the aragonite skeletons of the coral were geochemically converted to dolomite.
Let's give Creationists the best possible scenario and assume all these corals are growing at the fastest known coral growth rate of 8 inches per year. To be clear, we know that these corals abide by the far more common growth rate of 0.1-1.0 inches per year, but we're being generous.
A depth of 4540.8 feet X 12 inches / 8 inches per year yields an age of 6811.2 years. nearly 3000 years too old to have begun growing before the flood, and using the most generous possible growth rate, applied to corals who definitively do not grow that quickly.
The more realistic math using these species actual growth rates gives the atoll a minimum age of 138,000 years old, and that is still eliminating any erosional events in the core sample.
Coral Reefs line Enewetok or the Great Barrier Reef are ignored though, or spun to fit the narrative as in this link, where Old Earth Ministries busts YEC authors Snelling and Reed for misrepresentation, or, dishonesty.
Sometimes in an effort to explain this, Creationists invoke that the ancient coral colonies such as Thorton did not grow in one place, but are a result of many colonies that grew in separate places and were transported to a new location by the current, and subsequently buried.
Of course this brings us right back around to the problem of the fragile corals and other organisms, as well as the orientation of the reef itself. If it were carried by strong currents and placed elsewhere it should be heavy-side-down. But the heavy part of the reef, the enormous upward growth, is facing upward as it would if it had never been moved.
And so, Creationists are left with either invoking coral growth faster than ever before seen (which is not empirical) or suggesting physics defying currents, which have also never been seen.
Conclusion/TL;DR
Corals are incredible animals whose appearance, diversification and persistence in the fossil record aligns not with sudden Creation but with Evolutionary Theory given the succession of Rugose corals by Scleractinians. Additionally, their growth rates even at their most generous preclude the traditional YEC timeline both in modern reefs and ancient reefs. This leaves Creationists dealing with the coral issue by ignoring it or invoking never-before-seen physics and biologic concepts.
submitted by Gutsick_Gibbon to DebateEvolution [link] [comments]


2019.01.05 16:01 JeffB1517 What is a Palestinian in time (long addition to Jesus was a Palestinian)

This post is a follow up to Ros "Jesus Was a Palestinian" (https://www.reddit.com/IsraelPalestine/comments/abtnzb/jesus_was_a_palestinian_and_the_degradation_of/) since I've now realized that quite a few people who post on this topic regularly don't actually know what a Palestinian is through time or the timeline on the usage of the word. The below is a greatly oversimplified summary for those who don't want to read the entire post, which is itself is rather oversimplifying a topic that deserves a book not a post.
1) Palestine 1132 BCE (possibly earlier) - 597 BCE: a Philistine nation-state 2) Palestine 597 BCE - 135 CE: a vague allusion to the territory of that previous state 3) Palestine 135 CE - 634 CE: a Christian territory 4) Palestine 634 CE - 1911 CE: an off and on administrative term with no particular national connotations. 5) Palestine 1911 - today: a specific geographical territory with ties to a fixed ethnic identity
The word Palestinian comes from the Latin, Palestina. That's a loanword from the Aramaic and Hebrew, "Philistia" which came from the early Hebrew "Peleshet" which is a loanword from Ancient Egyptian. The word literally means "rolling" or"migrators" and in Hebrew picks up the connotation of invaders. It was not a word that any group was every likely to apply to itself. Rather than being a name for a people Palestinian is a word that the Semetic people of the region: Egyptian, Hebrews, Assyrians... were applying to a foreign people migrating in. In English this group of people is called the "Philistines" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philistines). We have no idea what these people called themselves, this was a term applied to them not by them. Archaeologically in the 12th century when Jewish and Egyptian records start talking about the Philistines extensively we suddenly see lots of Aegean style pottery in the archaeological records all along the eastern Mediterranean coast. So with all this we can put together a good picture of what a "Palestinian" was 3000 years ago. They were a population from the area near Crete who had invaded coastal areas of the Levant and Egypt to setup a shipping and trading station. They fought with the locals but mostly seem to have won the battles. Because we don't see a continuing cultural record in the archaeology but the written record still records a distinct military power for almost 500 years they appear to have culturally assimilated. We are using the data 1132 BCE because that's the first dateable Egyptian reference. 722 BCE is when they stopped being an independent military power, having to make severe concessions to the Assyrians. 597 BCE is when there is when the last of occupation, if there was still one at all, was driven out by the Babylonians.
It is worth mentioning that a century after the Philistine invasion, Lebanon starts developing two different heavy trading military powers one of which will evolve into the Punics (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punics , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palistin). Either one of these could have been an ally of the Aegean sea traders and one of the tribes self identifies with a word similar to Philistine, so Philistine could also have been a mocking of their own tribal name. In any case the Lebanese learned how to make good ships from those Philistines and became the naval superpower of their day conquering all the way out to North Africa and Spain.
After the 6th century BCE the word remains loosely affiliated with the region. Mostly it falls into disuse except for historical (pre-Assyrian contexts) where it is used heavily pointing to this invading group and their degree of political control. A Syrian, Egyptian, Judean in 200 BCE would never use the word to refer to themselves. We do see in some Egyptian and Syrian accounts a particularly type of mercenary being referred to as Palestinian, but those are definitely Greeks and thus they may very well have come from the same tribe of people near Crete as the original Palestinians. So getting to Ros' article when we talk about "Jesus was a Palestinian" a Greek mercenary operating in the Levant is the image a person in Jesus' time and place would have had of a Palestinian.
The Roman Republic genocides the Punics. The Roman Empire hates the Jews far less but still clears them out and of Judea and in the 2nd century creates a new civilization in their place. Hadrian wants to dejudaize the region and uses the term for the pre-Jewish civilization Palestine for his new administrative province "Syria Palaestina". To what extent the change catches on with Emperor Hadrian's order in 135 CE and to what extent the 2nd wave under Marcus Aurelius (161- 180 CE) finish it is hard to tell. The name Judea dies and becomes associated with a religious / cultural group (Jews) and Palestine becomes the name of the Roman / Byzantine civilization that will exist from 135 - 613 CE. This civilization is not Arabic and Catholic. There is no hint of the various religions that evolve into Islam. It also is not nationalistic. The people of it view themselves multiculturally not nationally. Most of their writings refer to cities but there are exceptions. Eusebius Bishop of Caesarea (author of the most important if not most accurate church history in the 4th century) used Palestine freely referring to where he lived.
The Eastern Roman Empire fairs somewhat better than the Western. A slight Arab migration to this territory starts in the 4th century and continues into the 5th. Jews become more numerous. The Samaritans launch a series of revolts and in their 3rd attempt are crushed with something approaching a genocide. The pagan cults in what is today Gaza diminish. Jews also regain a substantial foothold. The Persians have their eyes on Palestine and Jews seeing their chance to regain their freedom bet on the wrong horse. The Jews regain autonomy but in about a decade (complex history worthy of a full post by itself) the Persian government is overthrown and the Byzantine government reestablished.
This itself doesn't last long and the Byzantine civilization is conquered in a Arab Muslim invasion (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_conquest_of_the_Levant, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Palestine#Early_Islamization). The Diocese of Palaestina continues to exist among the Christians so Palestine becomes a traditional religious and Christian term for the region. A person living in Muslim region of Southern Syria would consider a Palestinian identity to be a regional identity. The same way an American would say they come from "New England" or "the Deep South". There is no political connotation to the term, for Muslims though Christians likely did retain a more political understanding of the word. Off and on during this period Palestine is included in various administrative subdivisions.
In 1009 caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah is conducting a Christian persecution and orders the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre igniting the crusades. The Fatimids and Seljuks caliphs continued to battle devastating the Christian population and turning them firmly against Muslim rule. By the end of the century the Kingdom of Jerusalem a theocratic Christian state existed as a political entity. The Christian nobles were themselves often literate and had access to bibles and Jews. They believe the term "Palestine" to be ambiguous and having 3 meanings. Palestine was not a particular place but rather a vague term that had non-overlapping meanings:
In any case the term was not used by the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the residents did not consider themselves Palestinians. The Kingdom wanted to rechristianize the region. It imported Christians from all over the middle east who were facing persecution. The Palestinian Christian community mostly descends from this population, not the community that existed during the Byzantine period and certainly not the Christian community that existed in Jesus' day (again ignoring the issues here) who would have been mystical Jewish and Ben Noach Hermetics and Gnostics cultists that would be long dead before any of the quasi-Catholic sects which became Byzantine Christianity emerged. They also imported Frankish Christians. The Kingdom of Jerusalem had 3 tiers:
The nobility were primarily military and economic. The peasants were oppressed. The heart of "Palestinian" culture in this period and all through the rein of Saladin and Mamluk's lies in the middle class. Which again is a diverse and multicultural culture like say New York City today. The territory goes through a series of invasions from the late 12th to 15th century. Each of the various invaders continues to encourage new waves of migration of a middle class keeping this model of foreign rule but middle class dominance. By the 15th century the urban middle class is a mixture of Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssinians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, Druze, Mamelukes, and Jews. As some in the middle class sink economically with change in leadership their presence diversifies the peasant class. There is simply is no national identity among a population this diverse. The word Palestine becomes strictly a geographical term. A Palestinian in the late 15th century is just someone who resides in Palestine. The borders of Palestine aren't fixed and so the usage remains quite vague.
This is the population the Ottomans take over when they become yet another conquering people. For them Palestine becomes a synonym for "the Holy Land" the land the 4 crusader kingdoms had been established in and the additional territories they had wanted. The territory is still poorly defined but is a bit sharper than it had been prior. The defining characteristic is Palestine as a culturally unsettled region. Off and on Palestine is used as a term for an administrative district. The Ottomans know that Palestine will be hard to hold given its diverse population. The periods after the Kingdom of Jerusalem are not good ones economically for the territory. The population had declined from both the violence of the waves of invasion and the invaders short term economic goals. The infrastructure is not maintained. Mostly the early period of the Ottomans they continue the process of economic dedevelopment. The Ottomans encourage a pan-national Islamic identity. This is problematic for Palestine which is now mostly Christian and Jewish but more than anything dilapidated and under populated. The "a land without a people for a people without a land" was a Christian Zionist slogan long before it was a Jewish Zionist slogan. While it was not entirely true in the 1880s it was far more true in say 1680. The Ottoman state encourages migration of Muslim families from Syria and Jordan into Palestine. The middle class travels from those countries and an associated lower class travels with them. Most Palestinians have last names pointing to geographies outside Palestine. This is when those families mostly migrated. A foreign empire is not going to encourage the emergence of a national identity and a diverse population is not going to naturally develop one in a hostile environment. The Ottomans in an untroubled way group Palestine in with various other Damascus based administrative districts sometimes using the term sometimes not. So for these centuries as well: Palestine is a vague territory, sometimes an administrative entity and a Palestinian is just someone who resides in Palestine.
Napoleon brings the concept of nation states to all of former Byzantium. It doesn't catch on immediately in the Ottoman territories as he is defeated quickly. However, as the Ottoman Empire is on the verge of collapse starting in 1911 we start to say see vague references to a Palestinian national identity in Christian writing. This identity is proto-Ba'athist based on race not geography. The idea catches on with Muslims some of whom also like the concept. Zionism by this point had existed for a full generation and mostly was unsuccessful. Within a decade this infant Palestinian nationalism would be cultivated by the Syrians. It would come face to face with the much more developed national identity of the British and it would be in contention with the more developed nationalism of the Yishuv. Moreover Palestine becomes a distinct colony, a polity quite seperate from its neighbors. Palestinian nationalism develops quickly in this friendly environment. The refugee crisis of the 1950s encourages an ethnic identity and brings with it the world's best tutors ever in 3rd world nationalism, the Soviets. By the late 1960s Palestinian ceases to mean someone residing in Palestine at all and instead becomes an ethnic identity. And that is why today Ali Abunimah and Yasser Ararat can consider themselves to be Palestinian while considering Benjamin Netanyahu not to be. The definition in 60 years flipped from being entirely regional to entirely ethnic.
submitted by JeffB1517 to IsraelPalestine [link] [comments]


2019.01.02 18:27 chandler404 Difference between historians and anthropologists re: prehistory

What is the line between what anthropologists study and what historians study in terms of prehistory?
I admit I'm coming from a place of naive ignorance, so apologies for using the wrong terminology or timelines.
I'm interested in the origins of human culture, but there seem to be arbitrary lines. The first recorded culture is Mesopotamia, which is about 3000 BCE (I think), but there were clearly artifacts from people in North America more than 10,000 years before that, and people in Australia up to 50,000 years before that.
Who were the people before Mesopotamia? Why is the fertile crescent considered the birthplace of humanity when there were clearly people elsewhere?
BONUS: What's a good book to start with for a noobie wrestling with these questions?

submitted by chandler404 to AskAnthropology [link] [comments]


2018.08.22 15:29 TheGreenStapler Timeline of Early Civilization/Language?

Not entirely sure what I'm trying to ask but is there a timeline of the earliest things we know tied to locations around the world? An example would be in 3000 bce we have Uruk in Iraq and we have the Yamna Culture in the steppes. Some way to see everything going on in the world in specific time frame.
submitted by TheGreenStapler to AskAnthropology [link] [comments]


2017.06.01 19:47 Break-The-Walls The Watchtower still secretly believes they know when Armageddon will happen, just not the actual date.

When I was an unbaptized publisher, my teacher who is now an elder, was explaining to me the mishaps of 1975 and why it wasn't correct, along with the generational​ leap doctrine which had left me utterly confused at the time.
Basically, he was a regular pioneer who attended the pioneer School, and the brothers there get special treatment and information. And part of this special information was another Armageddon timeline. All the information I am about to write was taught by the watchtower to regular pioneers in 2010.
He told me that on the 6 thousandth anniversary of Jehovah's last creation, which is Eve, Armageddon will comence. The problem with 1975 is that they thought Adam was Jehovah's last creation, that's why Armageddon didn't happen, but no one knows when Eve was created, only knowledge of her first borns and Adam's creation dates are known.
He went on to say that Armageddon will happen before the year 2125 because that marks six thousand years from Cain and Able's birth. Therefore, Armageddon will happen in-between 1975 and 2125 because at some point in between those years, it marks 6000 years from Eve's creation.
This is why the generational leap doctrine was introduced, because surely 1914 can't be false, as it must coincide with Armageddon which will take place on the anniversary of Eve. Therefore Jesus evidently meant that an overlapping generation wouldn't pass away.
I want to take one scripture to destroy this argument.
Matthew 24:36 “Concerning that day and hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but only the Father.
If the Watchtower believes they know when Armageddon is (Eve), then surely the Angels and Jesus know what day and year Eve was created, thus creating a huge contradiction with Matthew 24:36.
These people do not learn from their mistakes. You should.
And for those who are not aware, 6 thousand years is 6 creative days, and on the seventh Jehovah rested. The seventh being the mellinial reign of Christ with the 144k, one day of rulership while Jehovah rests. One day is like 1000 years to Jehovah.
But Jehovah began his rest after Eve was created, not 6000 years later in a repeating cycle, the Bible make no mention of this.
And if you do the math, if this prophecy is correct, then we are another 1000 years away from Armageddon. Because the 7th day ended in 3000 bce, which would put us 5000 years or five days away from the end of the day of rest. The Sabbath is based off this idea, so if Sunday is day seven and Monday is day one, what day are we in? Friday. Armageddon is supposed to start tomorrow, at the end of Saturday (day 6/6 thousand years), beginning of Sunday (Christ's mellinial reign, 7th day of rest for Jehovah). This prophecy absolutely fails. So when someone says the idea of 1975 is right, laugh in their face.
submitted by Break-The-Walls to AskaJW [link] [comments]


2015.12.31 00:15 Pinko_Eric Tech Talk: Writing Systems

Hey everybody, now like seems a good enough time to talk about literacy in Dawn. The topic was briefly mentioned here, but here’s more detail for those who are interested. More specifically, I’m referring to the pivotal development of writing systems. If you want to develop your own writing in Dawn, then have a seat and get comfortable--you’ll be here for a while.
I’ll start with what exactly we mean when we refer to writing systems. Both in our timeline and in Dawn, people have been using some type of written communication, initially in the form of drawn pictures and symbols, for time immemorial. Over time, cultures generally go beyond drawing pictures of concrete objects and develop the idea that they can symbolize abstract concepts with images. Later comes the notion that sounds themselves can be expressed through symbols, and eventually grammatical forms (verb tenses, prepositions, and so on) can be expressed in writing. Whenever we refer to writing systems here, either as a concept or as an in-game tech, we’re referring to some manner of writing that’s used to communicate with grammar and complete sentences.
Quite a few players have developed pictographs at this point, and some have even gone a few steps further. Below is an outline of how writing techs will work in Dawn, how one can work toward developing a writing system, and how one can get creative with developing written scripts, whether using one’s original system or basing a writing system off of another culture’s. Names of specific in-game techs are bolded throughout this post.

House Rules

Historically, there may have been as few as four to six cultures that invented writing systems without outside knowledge or inspiration; all others have been invented by people who at least learned the notion of writing from someone else. We want to reflect this dynamic in Dawn; therefore, we’re only going to allow a limited number of players to be original inventors of writing systems. Everyone else will either have to adopt writing systems wholesale from someone else (tech diffusion) or have enough exposure to the idea of writing to develop one’s own system.
It’s difficult to overstate the value of writing for preserving and building upon existing knowledge; certain abstract concepts simply don’t communicate well through oral transmission alone. Reflecting this, each player who does have a writing system will be able to research one additional tech per week, starting the week after acquiring/inventing said system.
Also, purely aesthetic standards for those who develop writing systems (original or adapted):

Developing Writing in a Nutshell

Technological Pre-reqs: At the very least, you need to research pictographs as one tech and another intermediary stage/type of writing as another. For example, if you want to develop a logographic system (one image represents one or more entire words, as in Chinese characters and many Egyptian hieroglyphs), you would have to develop pictographs, then ideographs, then logographs, and then a logographic writing system. Also note that these are bare minimum tech requirements. Finally, tech progressions might vary somewhat from case to case, with factors such as amount of RP and time being considered. Typical examples of techs for different classes of writing systems are outlined below:
Included in “writing-related techs" are numerals and other early forms of written communication/symbolism, as well as ideographs, which take pictographs a step further by allowing individual symbols to represent abstract concepts and short messages.
Civilization Pre-reqs: Writing systems originally came about under a variety of circumstances, but they always appeared in societies that had sufficient population and development that administrative or other communicative needs led to the development of writing. Extent of trade, administration, population size, and specialization (how many of your people are able to be something other than farmers, herders, fishers, etc.) are all factors we’ll consider before approving a writing system.
Additional Roleplay Prereqs: As with other “advanced” techs, we need to see background for this. How did your people get the idea to develop a writing system in the first place? What was the process? Ideally, we would also like players to actually create visual representations of their writing systems, so far as this is feasible. A great example is this one by chentex; expect two others to surface pretty soon. Obviously we’ll only expect this within reasonable limits; if you have a logographic system that would require hundreds of characters, for example, then feel free to create just a handful and share those with us.
As a last resort, you can go ahead and steal/use a historical writing system, but please don’t choose one that’s too modern.

This writing thing sounds contagious. What happens if I catch writing from someone else? What if I want to catch it from someone else, or make my own strain of this disease after it spreads?

As with other techs, tech diffusion is a useful way to acquire a writing system if you don’t win the “race” to develop an original one (or if you simply don’t feel like putting in the time, effort, and techs for that). Theoretically you can steal a writing system tech as long as your people are at least exposed to someone’s idea of writing, but it’s easier (and more likely to be mod-approved) if your people have significant interactions with the other group(s). Just a few examples of likely scenarios are trade (your trade partner uses writing to communicate, and it’s convenient for you to adopt their system), cultural exchange (your people have been learning some of their language for other reasons), and warfare or politics (maybe another culture rules over your people for a while and compels you to adopt its writing system).
As should be clear by now, most of history’s writing systems are ultimately derived from older systems. If you want to get creative and develop your own writing system for your culture, even after you’ve adopted someone else’s, feel free to do so. However, derivative writing systems should in some way be based on their predecessors, whether in structure, aesthetics, or often both. For example, your people would need a really good cause to switch from an alphasyllabary to an alphabet. The same principles apply for updating and altering writing systems as time goes on. Note that once you have a writing system tech, you don’t need to research any other techs in order to change your people’s current writing system, even if you’re switching to a different class of writing (such as logographs to an abjad). You just need to roleplay the change well.
That’s about it! Many of us players and mods are worldbuilders here, so I think I can safely say that we’ll be excited to see how writing--arguably the most important form of human expression, but I’m biased--develops in Dawn.
submitted by Pinko_Eric to DawnPowers [link] [comments]


2015.12.14 20:42 kirolm I need your help with a small history project I'm working on, /r/boardgames

So I am currently working on a small creative project for YouTube and as I was researching BCE board games, I found the Wikipedia entry to be pretty haphazard. So I started doing some research and lots and lots of websites have 'rough' timelines for board games pre-1800s, but when you get to year 0 and before, it is all over the place.
This is what I have so far, but if anyone could suggest things that are missing, corrections and all that, it would be supremely helpful. Mind that I am looking for verifiable sources. Mancala was something I ran into time and time again as a "possibly" 1400 BCE game that doesn't actually have many records in it's current incarnation before the 17th century. Nevertheless, I've decided on the closest approximation I could find that would show any sort of progression that I can reliably source. I've also settled on going by century as any data more specific than that is woefully unreliable.
Also, there is a huge gap between 1100 BCE and 600 BCE, but there was so much looting and pillaging I don't know how much survived that era in regards to board games.
At any rate, here it is:
Thanks for any feedback and for reading this far!
EDIT: Switching things up as I research them or get feedback.
submitted by kirolm to boardgames [link] [comments]


2015.11.28 07:38 kirolm Does anyone know any really good resources for early sports (pre-3000 BCE)

Wikipedia has been kind of a crapshoot. A lot of the citations accompanying claims of ancient wrestling link to the wrong thing or to things that are several hundred (if not over a thousand) years off. The earliest verifiable source I found was the epic of Gilgamesh (which has references to a wrestling match in roughly 2100 BCE) or the Beni Hassan art from 1900 BCE. It's as early as I can trace it with some verifiable source (though I am currently researching limestone votive plaques from the Mesilim period dating to 4000 BCE - 3000 BCE) and I would love to find a place to quickly get a timeline pre-Olympic games if anyone's already made one!
submitted by kirolm to sports [link] [comments]


2015.03.09 23:24 Quouar This Week in History (9/3 - 15/3)

As always, if you enjoyed this or are interested in more posts like this, saunter on over to /ThisDayInHistory!
9 March
10 March
11 March
12 March
13 March
14 March
15 March
submitted by Quouar to history [link] [comments]


2014.04.23 03:16 dredmorbius Mongols, horses, climate, and world history

The question "Were the Mongols really the unstoppable force that they are so often portrait as? Were there any inherent weaknesses in the way the Mongols waged wars?" in /AskHistorians turned up a few fasinating references to factors influencing Mongol success in conquering much Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1200s.

A global warm period

From TIME magazine, "How Climate Change Drove the Rise of Genghis Khan", byBrian Walsh:
In the late 1100s, the Mongol tribes were split by dissension, a threat to no one but themselves. By the early decades of the 1200s, the tribes had become a united force that rained havoc on its neighbors, expanding in every direction on a wave of horses. Eventually the Mongols would establish the largest land empire in history, ruling over modern Korea, China, Russia, eastern Europe, southeast Asia, Persia, India and parts of the Middle East. To this day the DNA of the Mongols can be found throughout the territories that once made up their empire.
More specifically: the DNA of Genghis Khan himself, from what I understand (citation needed).
As a fascinating new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) demonstrates, the rise of the Mongols may have owed just as much to beneficial changes in the climate that made the grasslands of the Mongol steppes green and verdant, fueling the horses that were the backbone of the empire’s military. Climate change helped make the Mongol Empire possible.
Based on tree-ring data, climate patterns in the periodcould be ascertained. Performed byNeil Pederson (ColumbiaUniversity, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) and Amy Hessl (West Virginia University):
Counting back to the late 1100s, just before the rise of Genghis Khan, the tree-ring data indicated that the Mongol steppes had been in the grip of an intense drought, one that could have helped drive the years of division among the Mongol tribes as they competed for scarce resources. But the tree-rings showed that the years between 1211 and 1225—a period of time that coincided with the meteoric rise of Genghis Khan, who died in 1227—were marked by unusually heavy rainfall and mild temperatures. It didn’t turn Mongolia’s harsh steppes into Maui, but the warmer climate would have stimulated the growth of the grasslands that fed the Mongols’ vital herds of horses and livestock. Given that each Mongol warrior had five or more horses, the energy represented by that additional grass would have helped fuel their astounding rate of expansion.
As Hessl noted:
[Climate] wasn’t the only thing, but it must have created the ideal conditions for a charismatic leader to emerge out of the chaos, develop an army and concentrate power.

Small horses

From sotonohito, the observationthat the Mongols had small horses (and likely less body mass of the Mongols themselves compared to Europeans):
[T]he Mongolian cavalry was more along the lines of mounted archers and light lancers they didn't need the large, heavy, horses that European knights used.
The advantage is that the smaller, less muscular, horses the Mongols favored could subsist almost entirely on grass and other forage, while the larger horses of the European knights required grain to supplement forage.
That greatly cut down on logistical problems, and allowed the Mongolian forces more flexibility and mobility than their European counterparts had.
It's typical to think that larger body mass is an advantage, but it requires (in total) more energy to sustain itself (though it may be more efficient on an energy/mass basis), and more energy to accelerate (start, stop, turn), which in battle may mean you (and your horse) are more tired (given less food) and/or have to work harder for forage, and are outmaneuvered. Similar arguments have been used to suggest that H. sapiens outcompeted the larger, more massive H. neanderthalensis in part because they simply didn't need as much food. Though multiple extinction hypotheses have been suggested.

Climate change and world history

That leads also to a link on climate change and world history at the University of Texas:
What do a failed war by the Ottomans against the Hapsburg Empire, a rural rebellion in eastern Anatolia, the disappearance of the Roanoke colony, and near starvation at Jamestown, Santa Fe, and Quebec City have in common? They all take place during a period of global cooling known as the Little Ice Age, which brought extreme climate conditions, drought, heavy winters, and contributed to rising fuel prices, failing crops and massive civil unrest in places as diverse as North America and the Middle East.
Sam White principally discusses the Little Ice Age (~1400AD - 1800AD).
A dryer (pardon the phrase) but more comprehensive catalog of environmental history can be found via Wikipedia: "Timeline of Environmental History, including the meltwater pulse 1A which saw a global sea level rise of 20m (65 feet) in less than 500 years, possibly just 200, 14 thousand years ago. It's though to have been cause by the collapse of an ice bridge between present-day Greenland and Canada.
You'll also find the formation and drainage of Lake Agassiz (in Canada, occupying the area now including lakes Manitoba, Winnipeg, Winnipegosis, and Lake of the Woods), formatoin of the English Channel, flooding of the Black Sea (a possible source of the Noah saga). Ardification in 3900 BCE leading to formation of river-valley cultures, and possible trigger of urbanization and agriculture. The Burckle Crater impact in the Indian Ocean 3000 years ago, another flood myth origin possibility. And myrad droughts, floods, comet and asteroid impacts, gamma ray bursts, volcanic eruptions, megatsunamis, plauges and epidemics, storms, and similar events.
And for associated eras: Historical climatology, the Bronze Age Collapse, the Roman Warm Period, and the Medieval Warm Period.
It's a dynamic planet.

Addenda

Another post dredged from The Other Place archive: Roff Smith, "Drought Led to Collapse of Civilizations, Study Says ", National Geographic.
Study of fossilized pollen helps solve an intriguing historical mystery.
What happened about 3,200 years ago to bring about the collapse of not just one but a number of flourishing civilizations on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean?
A study of fossilized pollen particles taken from sediments at the bottom of the Sea of Galilee may have solved an intriguing historical mystery that has been troubling archaeologists for decades.
"In a short period of time, the entire world of the Bronze Age crumbled," says Israel Finkelstein, an archaeologist at the Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University, who was one of the lead scientists in the study.
"The Hittite Empire, Egypt of the pharaohs, the Mycenaean culture in Greece, the copper-producing kingdom located on the island of Cyprus, the great trade emporium of Ugarit on the Syrian coast, and the Canaanite city—states under Egyptian hegemony—all disappeared and only after a while were replaced by the territorial kingdoms of the Iron Age, including Israel and Judah."
The culprit: climate change -- an emerging drought -- whose traces are left in pollen records, during a 150 year period from 1250 BCE to 1100 BCE:
By studying pollen samples taken at 40-year intervals, the scientists were able to monitor changes in the vegetation. "Pollen grains are the 'fingerprints' of plants," says Langgut. "They are extremely helpful in the reconstruction of ancient natural vegetation and past climate conditions."
The scientists noticed a sharp decline around 1250 BCE in oaks, pines, and carob trees—the traditional flora of the Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age—and an increase in the types of plants usually found in semiarid desert regions. There was also a big drop in the number of olive trees, an indication that horticulture was on the wane. All are signs, say the researchers, that the region was in the grip of regular and sustained droughts.
submitted by dredmorbius to dredmorbius [link] [comments]


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What Do CE and BCE Mean?

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  3. Timeline of World History 50000 to 10000 BC - YouTube
  4. BC/BCE and AD/CE - Chronological Thinking - YouTube
  5. World History (3000 BC - 2013 AD) - YouTube
  6. Bronze Age (3000 BC - 776 BC) - YouTube
  7. History of Europe (3000 BC - 2013 AD) - YouTube
  8. BC and AD vs BCE and CE - YouTube
  9. BC and AD...in five minutes or less - YouTube

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